Scientific and Technical Departments
Nuclear Physics Department
Laboratory of Nuclear Processes
Fission Physics Laboratory
Laboratory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions
Laboratory of theoretical nuclear physics
Laboratory of nuclear processes established in 1972
The Laboratory of Nuclear Processes was established in 1972, its scientific Manager is Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor A. Duisebayev.
The scientific area of the laboratory, the experimental and theoretical study of the charged particles interaction processes (hydrogen and helium nuclides) in the energy range of 10-30 MeV\nucleon with nuclei, was formed from the study of the mechanisms of composite particles elastic and inelastic scattering, which results formed the basis for transfer to the large-scale research of relevant issues of nuclear physics: quasi-elastic processes and the processes of pre-equilibrium decay of highly-excited nuclear systems.
Laboratory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions est. in 2000
The Laboratory has been created within the Institute’s initiative program “Research of nuclear reactions for astrophysical and thermonuclear applications”.
Research interests – experimental measurements of nuclear cross-sections in reactions with light nuclei and light charged particles in a wide angular range, including those at extremely small and large angles in the energy range of 0.2 – 60 MeV; analysis of experimental data in the frameworks of cluster and collective models looking for reaction rates and astrophysical S-factor of nuclear reactions.
Main scientific achievements
- The series of research on reaction of radiating capture 9Ве(р, g)10В studying in a wide interval of energy of flying protons was executed.
- Mechanisms of nuclear reactions, accompanying the interactions of alpha-particles with boron isotopes at the energies of 40 and 50 MeV were investigated.
- The registration system for the products of nuclear reactions at low and ultralow energies of the accelerated particles was created (consisting of HP(Ge) gamma spectrometer, large-area large resolution semi-conductor detectors, etc.).
- The new reactionary cell on the cyclotron for measurement of differential sections of nuclear reactions at extremely small and big angles was created.
The head of the laboratory Baktybaev M.G.
Laboratory of theoretical nuclear physics
(created in 1987)
Research interests – theoretical low-energy nuclear physics and interaction aspects related to complicated compound systems.
Main scientific achievements
- Theoretical approach to quantum theory of fewbody scattering – the effective interaction potential approach – has been developed
- The Stark effect has been studied in strong magnetic fields by means of the oscillator basis technique, analytical solutions in the problem of confinement potentials and Coulomb forces
- Theoretical estimates for the rates nuclear synthesis out of the molecular resonance 3Hemd are used as the base for the current experiments at CERN
Solid state physics
Laboratory of ion-plasma technology
Laboratory of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy
Laboratory of ion-plasma technology est. in 1998
Research interests – ion-plasma processes and technologies behind film coatings formation and thin foils, structure and physical properties of the resulting materials.
Main scientific achievements
- The processes of ion-plasma synthesis and deposition of materials were developed, multifunction magnetron facility “Argamak” was created to form a multi-component coatings and foils;
- Developed and brought to commercial development in 1996 at the Precious Metals Plant in Ust-Kamenogorsk the ion-plasma technology of application of decorative and protective coatings of precious metals on the state awards. The process is distinguished by high-quality coatings, no loss of precious metals, sanitary and environmental safety.
- Created the magnetron technology of protective coating of titanium nitride on the working surfaces of tools for metalworking. The use of protective coatings increases the tool life two to three times and improves the quality of the resulting products.
- Obtained the application experience of titanium nitride coatings in dental practice,
Получен опыт применения покрытий из нитрида титана в стоматологической практике, which showed the high decorative qualities of products, wear resistance and biocompatibility coatings.
- Synthesized the superconducting coating (SС) based on niobium nitride, fundamentally developed equipment and created prototypes of ribbon cables with high critical parameters of superconductivity.
- Created metallic materials from components that are immiscible in liquid and solid states and that do not form intermediate compounds. For example, by doping lead with beryllium or with aluminum it was possible to obtain samples of
SC with a substantial rise in the critical current density to a level corresponding to modern SC.
- Obtained by magnetron method are thin fine-grained foils from beryllium and beryllium materials with increased elasticity and strength. Beryllium foils are suitable for use as protective windows of X-ray detectors with low energy. The structure and phase constitution of deposited foils can be set over a wide range.
- ISTC K-040C-97 (1997-1999) project contributed to carrying out works.
Magnetron technologies of coat forming and thin foils
Equipment for magnetron technologies
In the laboratory of ion-plasma technologies (LIPT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) during a number of years the investigations of processes of material forming in plasma at low pressure have been carried out. The received results are in the basis of elaborated technologies of coat forming from metals and their compounds. Coatication of special coatings increase the technical level of production and value of wares. Besides a lot of materials in the form of thin coats on the bearing basis have unique qualities and developed sphere of application.
During the works the specialists of the laboratory make a large attention to the technical ensuring of investigations. Efforts, focused on practical result achievement, allowed to produce a base universal facility for synthesis and coatication of coating in 1994. The author’s elaborations of magnetron pulverizes and vacuum system, produced in OAO SELMI (Sumy, Ukrain) have been used in the facility. Mass of the facility is 300 kg, power is 3 kW (fig. 1).
Complex of research and technical works, carried out in the laboratory of the IPT INP, is directed to creation of technologies, equipment and new materials intended for industrial usage.
A new impulse of the development of applied investigations was given in the process of carrying out of the project ISTC K-040C-97 “Technology for manufacturing the beryllium materials and coatings and investigation of its properties at the conditions simulating the temperature-strength, gaseous and radiation effects of thermonuclear reactor”. To the end of the project the practical results in the field of process elaboration and equipment for coating and thin foils producing from beryllium and other materials have been received.
One of the main characteristics – speed of coatication of coating – was increased in several times and reached 4 mkm/min for metallic coatings and 0.5 mkm/min for synthesized coatings like TiN. A high speed of precipitation not only reduces a cycle of precipitation but also increases the quality of coatings. Increasing of productivity of magnetron pulverizes is provided by increasing of energetic effectiveness of the system of dispersion i.e. owing to amelioration of qualitative activities of the equipment. It is provided first of all by elaboration of original construction of magnetron units and creation of specialized system of power supply. Magnetrons work in the load continuous duty at a large power density to targets – up to 150 W/cm2.
Another important condition of coating quality consists of decrease of mixture concentration in technical argon or in working gas mixture. Gas needs in deep multi-step purification before its entering in the working camera. At the same time argon goes through the original purifying apparatus of a magnetron type.
A large attention is also given to additional processes – in particular preparation of ware surface before coating forming. The preliminary purification of working surface is carried out using a steam of organic solvents. On the last stage the ware is subjected to ion etching in working camera before precipitation. A careful preparation of ware surface provides a good adhesion of coatings.
Using equipment created in the laboratory a number of industrial technologies has been designed:
- Thin foil manufacture from beryllium, other metals or their combinations including immiscible metals
- Coatication of stable to wear coatings from noble metals
- Synthesis of protective and decorative metals from titanium nitride
- Coating receiving from niobium compounds for ribbon superconducting cables with a high critical current
On the plant of non-ferrous metals (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan) the technological line of protective coating precipitation from precious metals on wares of with using of vacuum magnetron facilities produced in the laboratory of IPT INP has been working beginning with 1994. Experience work in the industry showed the reliability of elaborated technique at a long operation.
On the basis of technical results of investigations more than 20 patents in Kazakhstan and Russia have been registered.
- Thin foils
Beryllium windows and foils
Foils from beryllium are used in apparatus and for nuclear-physical experiments. Industrial foils are made by the method of a hot rolling in protective coverings. The traditional technology of beryllium foil rolling has some disadvantages, which with decrease of foil thickness worsen their qualities. It leads to quick increase of thin foil cost, less than 50 mkm in thickness.
There have been elaborated the method of receiving of thin beryllium foils by ion-plasma method in the laboratory of IPT INP. There has been precipitated beryllium layer of necessary thickness (15 mkm and more) on the bearer from metal, after that the formed foil is separated. Depending on bearer form foil is like a ribbon or circle with specified diameter.
Beryllium foils are used as protective windows of detectors passed X-radiation with low energy. For suitable fastening round windows are provided with circular belt from copper. Magnetron method allows receiving without additional processing ready-made vacuum compact X-rayed windows up to 1 inch in diameter with a mirror surface and high mechanic characteristics (fig. 2.).
A high quality of beryllium windows is provided by a number of factors among which the main one is a low content of mixtures in the target material.
The concentration of beryllium in targets after stepwise distillation of storage is 99.992 %. For keeping this beryllium purity in precipitated foil a deep purification of argon from chemically active mixtures in the facility of a magnetron type dispersed getter is used.
Magnetron foils have a high modulus of elasticity. Its small-grained structure promotes to this. Grain sizes do not exceed 0.3 mkm (fig. 3).
Direction of beryllium crystallite growth on immovable substrate practically coincides with normal to the surface. You can see it in fig. 4, where a foil structure in cross section is shown. The foil texture with the aid of uninterrupted substrate moving at foil precipitation is changed for solidity increase of beryllium windows. Crystallites have an incline to normal in foil formed on moving substrate (fig. 5).
The industrial vacuum magnetron facility for receiving windows from beryllium foil has been elaborated and manufactured. Speed of window precipitation is 10 mkm/h. The window thickness is controlled by the duration of the forming process. There have been executed 8 cycles of precipitation of round beryllium windows in 20-mkm thickness, from 5 to 40 mm diameters without target replacement on the facility.
Foil from beryllium alloy
Beryllium alloys represent a practical interest connected with their special physical and mechanic qualities. Anyway a high fragility of beryllium materials make difficult using of a method of plastic storage processing for receiving thin foils and other wares. Besides with some metals for example with aluminum, beryllium does not form solid solutions or compounds. Materials from such immiscible components are not enough homogeneous and this decreases their value.
There has been elaborated the technology and equipment for manufacturing of thin foil by magnetron method and volume foil elements from beryllium materials in the laboratory of IPT INP. Foils formed by magnetron method have a number of advantages in compare with foils received by plastic processing of alloys.
Beryllium-aluminum foils and volume elements
Foil consisted from beryllium and aluminum can be used in X-rayed windows passed radiation with low energy. In compare with traditional beryllium windows beryllium-aluminum foil is cheaper. Its application is expedient in spite of small reduce of X-rayed transparence which is connected with re-emission of the first quanta on the main line of aluminum (1.5 keV).
The ribbon is formed from atom mixture consisted of beryllium and aluminum according to magnetron technology at simultaneous dispersion of targets from beryllium and aluminum. Metals are precipitated on moving bearer of cylindrical form up to receiving of a layer of definite thickness. After metal precipitation process foil is separated from bearer (fig. 6).
Foil has high mechanic qualities, increased modulus of elasticity and small-grained microstructure with crystallites of 0.1-0.3 mkm. Beryllium concentration in foil is set constant or variable according to foil thickness, receiving homogeneous or multi-layer ribbon. The thickness and composition of foil is easily controlled.
Geometric form of the bearer defines the form of foil, which is received by magnetron precipitation. At the same time it is possible to receive volumetric elements, for example, cone from beryllium and aluminum. The most important thing in the technology is that beryllium and aluminum cones received by magnetron method have a small-grained isotopic and homogeneous structure without connected seam. If it is necessary it is possible to make multi-layer volumetric element with a variable on wall thickness by beryllium concentration.
A sample of magnetron apparatus for fine foil receiving from beryllium and aluminum in a form of a ribbon in 65 cm length and 6 cm wide has been designed and produced (fig. 7). The speed of metal precipitation on the bearer is 0.15 mkm/min.
Foils and elastic elements from beryllium bronze
Fine foil from beryllium bronze (copper and beryllium alloy) is used particularly for producing of electroconductive elastic elements. The plastic processing of initial alloy at thickness decrease of foil becomes difficult and the material obtains the quality of anisotropy.
Elaborated in the laboratory of IPT INP magnetron method gives the possibility to obtain foil from beryllium bronze at target dispersion from copper and beryllium and metal precipitation on the moving bearer. To the end of the process of foil forming it is separated from the bearer.
Foil represents homogeneous and isotopic ribbon. It is also possible to obtain ribbons with multi-layer structure or ribbons with a variable on material thickness with beryllium concentration. Foil acquires necessary physical qualities owing to changing of its structure.
Thin foil from beryllium bronze has a small-grained microstructure with size of grains 0.1-0.3 mkm. It gives to foil high mechanic qualities with higher modulus of elasticity. Thickness and qualities of foil are easily controlled during the process.
Using bearers of different geometric forms at foil precipitation, it is possible to produce volume elastic elements from beryllium bronze. Springs, which are obtained during this process, can have a flat, conic, hemispheric and another form. As foil, springs have a small-grained structure with a high elasticity and can be homogeneous or with a variable composition on section. If it is necessary it is possible to carry out the additional thermal processing of wares, which will form the definite phase composition and qualities of beryllium bronze.
The sample of magnetron facility for receiving of thin foil from beryllium bronze in the form of a ribbon 65 cm length, 6 cm wide has been designed and manufactured (fig. 7). Precipitation speed of foil ribbon on the bearer is 0.15 mkm/min.
- Protective coats
Protective coats from precious metals
Existing industrial technologies of coats from gold and other precious metals are based on the application of the electrolytic methods of precipitation, which have a number of disadvantages. Main ones from them are insufficient adhesion of coats and a high toxicity of used chemical agents that represents the dangerous for the staff and the environment. There are also problems in reproduction of natural color of metals in coatings.
The original technology of magnetron coatication of high-quality coatings from precious metals on metallic and non-metallic wares of a wide application has been designed in the laboratory of IPT INP. The process of coating precipitation takes place in vacuum that is why the rich color tints of precious metals and brilliance of polished wares is fully kept. Magnetron precipitation of precious metals does not use unsuitable in application toxic chemical solutions.
Coatings have a higher resistance to wear as a result of dispersing reinforcement of precipitated layer by microaddings of chrome, iron and other elements. Coating thickness and consumption of precious metals is easily controlled.
In the production cycle irrevocable loses of precious metals are absent. A part of pulverized metals, which accumulates inside the camera and not on wares, is easily gathered and with target remains used repeatedly for new target manufacturing for magnetron.
The highly productive industrial vacuum magnetron facility for coatication of coatings from precious metals has been designed and manufactured. There have been carried out 3-4 cycles of coatication of coatings 2-3 mkm in thickness on the facility without target replacement. One cycle of precipitation beginning from ware loading into the camera to their unloading lasts 2.5-3 hours depending upon coating thickness.
Maximal total acres of ware surface in a one cycle (loading) are 500 cm2. It is possible to place 36 wares in the form of a disk 4 cm in diameter for two-sided coatication of coatings in the camera 20 dm2 in volume on six object posts with planetary rotation. All object posts have a form of trihedral prism.
The received technological results can be applied on mints, industrial enterprises for manufacturing jewellery, common and other wares with coating from precious metals.
On the plant of non-ferrous metals (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan) the technological line of magnetron coating precipitation from precious metals on wares of governmental demand has been working beginning with 1994. Experience work in the industry showed the absence of precious metal loses and also high technical and decorative qualities of coatings and reliability of designed technique.
Protective coats from titanium nitride
A high solidity and good decorative qualities of coatings from titanium nitride promote to their using in the industry on plants for manufacturing medical, domestic wares and instruments (fig. 8).
Existing plasma technologies of coating receiving from titanium nitride do not provide the necessary decorative and protective qualities of wares. Coatication of coatings is accompanied with heating of processed wares up to a high temperature (600oC) and worsening of the qualities of ware material.
Elaborated ion-plasma technology and corresponding magnetron equipment allowed improving a visual perception of coatings from titanium nitride. The coating is synthesized and precipitated at titanium target dispersion in working gas, which containes nitrogen.
The coatings are biologically compatible with tissues of human organism and during a number of years keep a brilliance of polished wares and have a different solution with colored tints of known alloys of gold.
Protective coats from titanium nitride on tool steel and other wares have a controlled stochiometric solution when it is necessary to realize a maximal solidity of titanium nitride. Original productive magnetron pulverizes provide a good adhesion of coatings with ware surface. A high solidity of coatings from titanium nitride gives them steadiness to wear and increases durability of wares. The coatication of coatings on the special instrument takes place at 150oC, that is why after process termination the qualities of hardened steel are not changed.
The highly productive industrial vacuum magnetron facility for coatication of protective coatings from titanium nitride has been designed and manufactured (fig. 1). There have been carried out 10 cycles of coatication of coatings 2 mkm in thickness on the facility without target replacement. The total acres of ware surface in one cycle (loading) are 500 cm2. Speed of coatication of coatings on wares is 2 mkm/h.
- Ribbon superconductors
Ribbon superconductor with coating from niobium nitride
Niobium nitride is corresponded to the best superconductive compounds (ic=10 MA/cm2), but it is applied in film coating on small substrates only for manufacturing physical apparatus. A new prospective usage of niobium nitride is manufacturing ribbon superconductors on its basis. The main disadvantage of niobium nitride (its fragility) overpasses in a ribbon cable.
We designed the technology and equipment for ion-plasma coatication of superconductive coating from niobium nitride on a copper ribbon. Ribbon superconductor is stabilized and suits for manufacturing of industrial magnet bobbins after length increase.
Niobium nitride is synthesized at magnetron dispersion of niobium in the mixture of argon and nitrogen. For improving of technical parameters of ribbon superconductor the intermediate layers from titanium and titanium nitride are drawn between bearing basis from copper and coating from niobium nitride. Original magnetron highly productive pulverizeres provide high critical characteristics of the ribbon superconductor.
The vacuum magnetron facility for receiving of ribbon superconductor samples on the basis of niobium nitride has been designed and manufactured (fig. 9). Manufactured samples (fig. 10) have the following parameters:
Length/width of ribbon superconductor sample 60/5 cm Speed of superconducting coating precipitation 2 mkm/h Thickness of superconducting coating 1 mkm Thickness of bearing basis of sample 0,2 mm Critical temperature of change 15 K Critical current density 50 kA/?m2
Continued investigations of superconductive coatings for ribbon superconductors
Superconductive intermetallic compounds of niobium
Superconductive intermetallides of niobium Nb3Sn and Nb3Al have high values of critical parameters. One of compounds – Nb3Sn – is applied at manufactured of wire cables using processes of plastic and thermal processing of half-finished products. We replaced laborious method of plastic processing of wire by more operative one – forming of ribbon superconductors by magnetron precipitation.
There have been received samples of superconductive coatings Nb3Al and Nb3Sn on bearing basis from copper ribbon in the laboratory of IPT INP. Sample length is 60 cm, width – 6 cm. The coating in 1 mkm thickness are drawn at homogeneous magnetron dispersion of niobium and the second component. Crystal lattices of synthesized compounds relate to corresponding structural type with tabular parameter values.
At present time the preparation to cryogen experiments goes to the end and after their termination the critical parameters of ribbon superconductors will be defined. On the final stage of technology elaboration the sample tests of superconductive cables are planned, which are of interest of industrial magnet manufacturing.
There have been obtained coating samples from high-temperature ceramics Y-Ba-Cu-O on substratum from polycrystalline oxides in the laboratory of IPT INP. The coating is synthesised at magnetron dispersion of target of stochiometric compound in argon and oxide mixture. The coating from compound Y-Ba-Cu-O has a stochiometric solution, corresponding type of crystallite structure and high-temperature superconductivity.
The elaboration of methods of coating forming on metallic bearer is planned.
Head of the laboratory Tuleushev Yuri Zhianshakhovich
Laboratory of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy
In accordance with the decision of the 8th All-Union Coordination Meeting on Research Reactors (Alma-Ata, 1974) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the WWR-K neutron diffraction studies had to be deployed for the tasks of radiation material science. Zhetbayev A. K, who at that time used to be the Institute’s Scientific Secretary and head of the nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy group, was entrusted to create such a laboratory. The neutron diffraction researching laboratory got organized in the summer of 1975. It got composed of six members of Zhetbayev’s group. By 1979, the laboratory has replenished with new people and their number reached 17 employees. On the extracted neutron beams from nuclear reactor the apparatus got mounted for slow neutrons diffraction researches, as well as the apparatus of the neutron radiography «AGAVA».
By the end of the 70s the scientific and experimental base had been fully formed in the laboratory, composed of neutron diffraction and neutron radiography installations, 5 Mössbauer spectrometers and additional equipment that allowed to conduct experiments in a wide temperature range (from 4 to 2500 K) in inert, redox atmosphere, or in high vacuum conditions. In connection with the suspensions of the nuclear reactor work at the end of 80s, in 1991 the laboratory got renamed into the laboratory of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy.
The first successful experiment on the observation of the Mössbauer effect in Kazakhstan was carried by Zhetbaev A. K. in the summer of 1964 on the isotope 182W with a source 182Ta, activated in the reactor of the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR in Tashkent, at the facility with a mechanical system of the Doppler shift of the gamma rays.
At the same time the apparatus was created with the electrodynamic system of source movement and its electronic equipment. The technique of producing isotope 57Co at the Ural (Sverdlovsk) Polytechnic Institute’s cyclotron was being mastered.
With the commissioning of the new apparatus the intensive study of the chemical compounds of iron and geological origin began.
In those years, the laboratory staff made a number of methodological developments, which allowed the team to earn international recognition:
- Method of selective gamma-resonance spectrum registration of the nuclear reaction products for selective sensing of microscopic (on a atomic scale) areas of atom inhibition in solids
- Manufacturing technology of Mössbauer 6.25 keV radiation sources, emitted during the 181W nuclear disintegration, and resonance absorbers of tantalum metal (for the first time in the USSR). The observation of the Mössbauer effect on tantalum-181 possessing hypersensitivity to any changes in internal fields at the nuclei
- Mössbauer spectrometer with a magnetic energy analyzer of conversion and secondary electrons, and position-sensitive detector for sensing near-surface layers of the object under study
With the support of the international organization IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) in Alma-Ata from September 26 to October 1, 1983 The International Conference on Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ICAME-83) was held. Decision to determine Alma-Ata as the conference venue was made possible due to the “… great successes of Kazakhstan scientists in the field of radiation physics and solid state physics, metallurgy and chemistry with Mössbauer effect application …” (the decree of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences)
Laboratory staff on the celebration of its fifth anniversary
The provided photos show some working points and conference meetings, which obtained its active participant and the discoverer himself, Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics 1961, Rudolf Mössbauer. Over the years of its existence laboratory staff produced two doctorates (Zhetbayev А.К., Donbayev К.М.) and twelve PhD theses (Verezhak М.F., Livertc Е.Z., Dosmagambetov Т., Ozernoi А.N., Shokanov А.К., Zhantikin Т.М., Donbayev К.М., Serikbayeva Z.Т., Mukusheva М.К., Kerimov E.А., Zhubayev А.К., Suslov Е.Е).
Over the past decade the laboratory got retooled with new experimental equipment. Laboratory space got renovated in accordance with European standards and all the conditions got created for carrying out scientific and research work on the highest experimental level.
The laboratory has two modern spectrometers, that allow to carry out research using methods of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy in the “transmissive” geometry – with the registration of gamma rays in the temperature range from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures, and in the backscatter geometry – with the registration of internal conversion electrons. The main experimental laboratory equipment can ben seen on the following photos:
The experimental Mössbauer spectra is performed using software packages MS Tools and SpectrRelax, that allow to solve the following tasks:
- increasing the resolution and effective noise reduction in the spectrum;
- model decoding of the Mössbauer spectra using a priori information on the experiement conditions and the subject under study
- restoration of the distribution functions of hyperfine parameters of partial spectra;
- qualitative and quantitative phase analysis using spectra of standard specimens
Based on research findings during the period from 2008 to 2011 the Laboratory of Nuclear Gamma-Resonance Spectroscopy staff has published over 30 articles in leading national and international journals.
Highly qualified specialists in solid state physics are being trained. In the laboratory pre-diploma practice periodically take place and on the basis of performed work the diploma projects are being defended by Satbayev Kazakh National Technical University students, as well as by L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University and Al-Farabi Kazakh National University students. For them in 2010 on the Institute of Nuclear Physics base the School-Seminar “Modern applications of the Mössbauer spectroscopy” was organized and successfully conducted, during which in front of students the leading global specialists, Professor Rusakov V.S. (Russia), Professor Nagy D. (Hungary), and Miglerini M. (Slovakia), gave presentations with lectures on topical themes of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy.
Laboratory’s main scientific results (1975-2012)
- A method for registering primary knocked-on atoms and their final state is introduced, which allowed to expand the application of the nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy on objects which do not possess a Mössbauer element in their initial state. This method is incorporated in a scientific and research program “Amorphous materials” SPA “Red Star”.
- The cementite state in compositionally different Fe-C and Fe-Al-C alloys depending on irradiation. Determined the conditions and proposed the cementite decomposition mechanism under irradiation, studied the kinetics of phase and chemical transformations in the oxides and mixed oxides of iron.
- Developed methods of calculating electric-field gradient (EFG) on 57Fe nuclei. Derived formulas that simplify the calculations of lattice sums. Developed the technique for calculating EFG on three-valence iron nuclei with consideration of exchange effects in iron-oxygen complexes.
- For the first time mastered the measuring technique of angular correction of resonance-scattering g-rays 14,4 keV from 57Fe, which helped give the definition of the nature of the broadening of resonance lines of alloys and chemical iron compounds.
- For the first time studed the interaction between impurities with the radiation defects in niobium and molybdenum.
- Researched, at the atomic level, the mechanism of radiation-stimulated processes of ordering-disordering and phase transformations in alloys Fe, Mn, Ni, Al, and amorphous materials.
- For the first time in Soviet Union mastered the manufacturing technology of Mössbauer radiation sources 6,25 keV, emitted during the decay of the nucleus tungsten-181, and resonance absorbers from tantalum metal. Established the observation technique of Mössbauer effect on tantalum-181, which possesses a hypersensitivity to internal fields by nuclear parameters, hence why it appeared inaccessible to experimental observation.
- Developed the Mössbauer spectrometer with magnetic energy analyzer for conversion and secondary electrons and position-sensitive detectors for fiber sensing of nearsurface material layer.
- Provided the experimental justification for the concept of “thermal spikes” in various classes of solids: chemical compounds, metals, alloys and metal glasses.
- Described, at the atomic level, the interaction mechanisms and diffusion of point defects, the primary manifestations of phase formation and ordering-disordering under radiation.
- Found a new phenomenon of the radiation stabilization of ferrite’s magnetic parameteres
- Applied the neutron radiography into researches on the direct nuclear energy conversion to electrical. With the help of neutron radiography held the diagnostics of the thermionic converter state, that passed the resource endurance tests in the active reactor zone, which allowed to achieve a qualitatively new, previously unnaccessible results on thermionic converter work. In details, traced the process of the Ostwald ripening of cesium vapors in electrogenerating channel and its fuel redistribution
- For the first time in Soviet Union, synthesized the superconductor based on thallium with the highest transition temperature into the superconducting state: 125 K. The synthesis technology is transferred to Pyshminsky pilot plant “GIREDMET”.
- Perfected the manufacturing technology of Mössbauer sources 57Co(Rh), which allowed, for many years, to conduct Mössbauer researches with own sources.
- For the first time with the help of methods of Mössbauer spectroscopy on nuclei 57Fe with the attraction of X-ray and structural analysis, as well as methods of Rutherford backscattering of protons, it was possible to conduct the systematic researches of thermally induced diffusion and phase transformations in layered systems of iron-beryllium in a wide concentration range.
- Found the g-a-transformation in a stainless steel under beryllization, plastic strain, and irradiation. Established the mechanism of such transformations.
- For the first time conducted researches on thermally induced processes of diffusion and phase transformations in layered systems based on iron and aluminum. Established the kinetics of diffusion processes and phase transformations in such systems.
- For the first time conducted researches on thermally induced processes in layered systems of iron and titanium with the isochronous and isothermal annealing.
- Suggested an injection method of radioactive tagged atoms 57Co in nanoscaled protective metal coatings during their formation by electrolytic codeposition with the parent coating material.
- For the first time ferromagnet FeBe2 was observed in regards to its changes in magnetic properties after irradiation by helium and krypton ions, and their reset was observed after annealing at 650ºC temperature, which showed the possibility to control material’s magnetic properties by the impact of accelerated ion beams.
- The conducted tests of objects under study in regards to radiation resistance showed that in the operating-temperature range 600-650ºC the established system Be-Fe-Be remains to be both thermally- and radiation-resistant.
- Developed the radioactive sources 57Co(Сr) of high quality. They are required to conduct works in tandem with the resonance detector, which significantly reduces the Mössbauer experiment’s duration and considerably raises the resolution of the experimental apparatus
Currently, the laboratory staff, in the implementation of the scientific and technical program “Development of nuclear power in the Republic of Kazakhstan”, performs scientific research works on the theme “Researches on the creation of multilayer nanoscale metal coatings for applications in nuclear power engineering and industry”.
Chief of Laboratory Ozernoi A.N.
Laboratory of applied and theoretical material science
Laboratory of radiation material science
Laboratory of radiation diffusion
Laboratory of radiation diffusion established in 1980
Research interests – solid state physics, high-temperature superconductivity, computer generated simulation of radionuclides transfer processes.
Main scientific achievements:
- Studied interaction processes of fission fragments with model and constructional materials of nuclear power plants
- Studied the impact of structure and composition of certain model and constructional materials on the behaviour of single atoms of helium and small helium-vacancy complexes in them
- Studied the impact of external effects (hydric medium, ionized radiation e.t.c) on the structure and properties of high temperature superconductors. Found the increase in transitional critical current with weak interactions on the ytter HTSC ceramics.
- Performed the computer generated simulation of radionuclides transfer by subterranean waters from Balapan’s nuclear explosions testing grounds with the consideration of hydro-geological conditions.
- Studied the impact of cation subsystem of proton conductors on the state and behaviour of several gases in them
- Within the two projects INTAS 99-00636 and 00-00728 works are being carried out on researching the new advanced materials based on complex oxides – high temperature proton conductors and manganites – materials with a gigantic magnetic resistance.
Chief of Laboratory Khromushin Igor Valeryevich
Center for Complex Environmental Research
Laboratory of Environmental Safety Technologies
Laboratory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Laboratory of Nuclear-physical Methods of Analysis
Laboratory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance established in 1962
Research interests – radiospectroscopy of radiospectroscopic instrumentation, EPR-dosimetry.
Main scientific achievements:
- Developed the method theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in moving samples and some of its practical applications in the field of physics, measurement technology and industry.
- Found the anomalous dosage dependences of radiation defects accumulation under the irradiation of polymers and other materials, and given their physical interpretation.
- Developed the theoretical and experimental rationale of NMR applications for non-volatile control of metal strength properties.
- Theoretically and experimentally grounded a new precision method of the absolute measurement of magnetic fields in a wide range of strains, gradients and temperatures, based on the nutation of nuclear magnetization in a moving sample.
- The EPR-dosimetry method is mastered and adapted for the special conditions of Kazakhstan. Carried out the first experiments on retrospective dosimetry of the teeth enamel and minerals.
Chief of Laboratory Pivovarov Sergei Petrovich
Laboratory of nuclear-physical methods of analysis established in 1961
Research interests – development and application of nuclear-physical methods of elemental analysis, and radionuclides analysis methods.
Main scientific achievements:
- Developed the complex of nuclear-physical (activation analysis, X-ray and fluorescent analysis) elemental analysis techniques for solving scientific and practical tasks in ecology, geology, metallurgy, and medicine.
- Developed the complex radiochemistry technique for determining Pu-239, 240, Sr-90, Am-241 in soil areas samples, on which the nuclear test were conducted.
- Studied the content of radionuclides in soil samples from separate STS areas. The plutonium concentrations were set for the first time. In separate soil samples studied the distribution of radionuclides in various fractions.
- Studied the elemental composition of hydrocarbon fossils (oil, oilbituminous rock, oil and carbonaceous shales) from over 50 Kazakhstan deposits. Established the concentrations of valuable (Ti, V, Ni, Mo, Pb, Ag, Au, Pt) and harmful (S, As, Se, Br, Sb) impurities. Studied in detail and presented as a map the vanadium composition in the Western Kazakhstan’s oil deposits. Based on the analytical works the laboratory is recognized as the member of the opening of 5 vanadium deposits in Tatarstan oil.
- Performed the analytical control of obtaining high-purity metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) technology on Shymkent lead plant.
- Results are reported on a numerous international conferences (Beijing, Vienna, Dubna, Kailua-Kona e.t.c) and implemented in more than 20 scientific and industrial organizations
- Studied the concentration level and radionuclides form in a various STS areas. Based on the achieved results performed the characterization of radionuclide pollution of STS on the whole (International Project ISTC K-53)
- Works on radiation monitoring are being conducted, as well as on nature study and mechanisms of radionuclide pollution of “Lira” objects on Karachaganak gas condensate field (International Project “Lira”)
- Works on radiation monitoring of the Syr Darya river basin are being conducted. Figured out separate areas with an increased content of natural radionuclides (International Project “Navruz”)
- Certification works are being conducted of the most radiation-hazardous STS areas. The methods and their rehabilitation technologies are being developed (International Project ISTC K-337)
Chief of Laboratory Solodukhin Vladimir Petrovich
Laboratory of mass- and electronic spectroscopy
Laboratory of engineering ecology
Geoinformational systems group
Laboratory of mass- and electronic spectroscopy established in 1962
Research interests – dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic fields, development of electronic optics, development and creation of new power- and mass-spectrometeres and conducting precision researches in areas of isotope mass-spectrometry and spectrometry of low energy electrons
Main scientific achievements:
- Created an accurate electron-optical analogues of light prisms – magnetic and electrostatic electron prisms and their full electron-optical theory got developed.
- Develoepd a theory of adiabetic invariants, that describes the behaviour of particles in electromagnetic waves
- Developed a general theory of spaсe-time focusing of charged particles in static electric and magnetic fields
- Created a prism mass-spectrometer with a resolution of 150,000, that surpassed the previously released USSR analogues
- Developed and built:
- magnetic prism beta-spectrometer
- several modifications of electrostatic prism beta-spectrometers
- Development of position-sensitive detectors, electrons and nonequipotential beta-sources has hiked the measurements’ effectiveness.
- Established the patterns of particles emission by radioactive atoms, as well as researched the Auger electron emission probabilites for a wide range of atomic numbers.
- Developed the ion deflector that allows for 50-70 times greater increase in the sensitivity of ToF mass-spectrometers.
- Published over 300 scientific articles, two monographs, two reviews in international publishing “Academic Press” (Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, v.68 (1986), v.89 (1994)), acquired over 30 inventors’ certificates and patents.
Chief of Laboratory Yakushev Evgeni Mikhailovich
Acceleration Technologies Deparment
Laboratory of accelerating processes physics
SPC of Radiation Technologies
STC of Radiochemistry and Isotope Production
Complex of Research Reactor WWR-K
Laboratory of Atomic Energy Safety Problems
WWR-K Research Reactor
STC non-destructive inspection and testing methods
Laboratory of Atomic Energy Safety Problems
established in 1994
- The laboratory is the base laboratory of the Nuclear Energy Committee of the Ministry of Energy and mineral resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan
- The laboratory is guided by the Regulations approved by the Director of INP and Chair of the Nuclear Energy Committee.
- experimental and theoretical researches in the fields of reactors’ physics, technology and safety.
- analysis of existing, development of new norms projects, regulations, recommendations in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety
- expert examination of specimens and samples of nuclear materials
- pursuance of intrareactor researches using a looping reactor plant
- application of nuclear methods in industry and medicine
Main scientific achievements
- Developed building principles of transport Nuclear Power Plant’s (NPP) passive safety system, which is based on the neutron spectrum’s deformation when the plant is in the hydric environment
- Developed and experimentally justified, on critical stand, the program of the research reactor WWR-K operation renewal.
- Presented the possibility of application of one of the WWR-K research reactor’s horizontal channels for solving tasks of neutron capture therapy of malignant tumors.
- Prepared project for standard documentation in the field of radioactive sodium safety handling
- The laboratory has a highly qualified specialists in the field of experimental reactor physics, nuclear electronics, programming, who possess a wide working experience in reactor facilities of various classes
- The majority of the laboratory staff passed their training in the US national laboratories in the following fields:
- accounting and control of nuclear materials
- non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials
- computer codes usage to justify the safety of nuclear energy objects;
- the matters of the reactor units’s decommissioning
- The participants’ qualification is getting raised by their participation in conferences, seminars, and work meetings, including those held at the initiative of the IAEA and AEC.
Laboratory’s experimental base
- Universal critical stand
- Non-destructive analysis plants of uranium-plutonium samples
- Computer Reactor Codes’ Library
- Complex of radiometric units
- Universal looping unit for large intrareactor studies
|1||Maximum power||100 Вт|
|3||Fuel enrichment with isotope 235U||36%|
|4||Composition and dimensions of active zone:|
|Option A fuel assembly number of the WWR-C type, less than –
maximum diameter –
|Option B fuel assembly number of the WWR-KM type, less than –
maximum diameter –
|6||Diameter of experimental channels:
central channel –
peripheral channels –
|65, 96, 140, 380 mm
65, 96, 140 mm
|7||Density of thermal neutron flux in experimental channels :
central channel –
peripheral channels –
Participation in fulfillment of agreements and international contracts
- Agreements with the Nuclear Energy Committee, Kazatomprom and Nuclear Technology Safety Center
- Project ISTC (К-12) “The resumption of operation of the WWR-K reactor and its application for scientific purposes”
- Project ISTC (К-578) “Radiation tests of lithium ceramic blanket for the fusion reactor”
- Experimental reactor physics
- Questions related to research reactors’ fuel enrichment reduction
- Application of nuclear methods in medicine
- Arinkin F.M., et al. About the possibility of local profile regulation and the magnitude of energy-release of looping channels.- “Atomic Energy”, т.46, вып.5, 1977.
- Arinkin F.M., et al. Reactor test of the regulatory system of looping channels parameters.- “Atomic Energy”, т.45, вып.5, 1978.
- Arinkin et al. About the WWR-K reactor reconstruction.- “The Kazakh SSR news”, сер.физ.-мат., 6, 1983.
- Arinkin et al. Energy-release calculation in fuel elements of the looping channels with Monte Carlo method.- “Atomic energy”, т.53, вып.6, 1982.
- Arinkin F.M. et al. The studies in the Substantion of the Nuclear Safety Conception of NPS for Manned Missions.- Proced. 9th Symposium ‘Space Nuclear Power Systems’, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1992.
- Arinkin et al. Ensuring conditions of sufficient safety of space NPP with thermoemission reactor-actuator on all stages of its life cycle.- Works of RSC “Energia”, “Rocket-Space equipment”, серия XII, вып.3-4, часть 1, 1995.
- Arinkin F.M. Inquiry of Questions to Provide Safety for Transport Nuclear Power Systems.- Proced. ICNC’95, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1995.
- Arinkin et al. Study of the systems’ reaction, important to the reactor safety and active zone, to seismic effects.- Collection of works JSCIAE INP of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Resumption of WWR-K reactor”, Almaty, 1998.
- Arinkin et al. Reactor complexes PGRPulse Graphite Reactor, Baikal I, WWR-K and development perspectives on their base of fundamental studies.- Preprint NNC RK, 00-12, 2000.
Chief of laboratory Arinkin Fedor Mikhailovich
Research nuclear reactor WWR-K
Pool-type thermal reactor was commissioned in 1967. Heat-transfer agent, reflector and moderator – demineralized water. The maximun density of thermal neutron flux: 1.1х1014 n/(cm2s). Heat rate – 6 MW.
The reactor base holds fundamental nuclear-physical and material science studies and intrareactor tests, production of radioisotopes for medicine and industry, gamma sources, neutron doping of silicon, neutron activation analysis.
STC of nondestructive inspection and testing methods
Scientific and Technological Center of Non-destructive Inspection and Testing Methods (STC NITM) was created in 2003. The main objective of that center was conducting works on non-destructive inspection of equipment and pipelines, subject to the Norms and Rules applicable regulations of Nuclear Power. During Soviet times the activity of nuclear energy facilities, as well as training and certification of specialists was carried out in centralized manner. In the post-Soviet period, the former Soviet republics faced a difficult task of self-development and maintaining a high level of safety iof the nuclear industry. In this regard, it became necessary for Kazakhstan to create units capable of organizing control on the Republic’s territory, technical examination, as well as certification of specialists for facilities under control of the Republic of Kazakhstan’s Atomic Energy Agency, that conducts regulatory activities in the field of nuclear energy usage.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and “Closed Nuclear Cities Partnership” (CNCP) british program were of great assistance in the organization and equipment with modern equipments for STC NITM. With their support it was possible to supply equipment for radiographic, ultrasonic, capillary, magnetic particle inspection, as well as equipment for destructive testing. The IAEA and CNCP projects implemented training of specialists at higher qualification levels at international centers of non-destructive inspection (England, Canada, Russia).
Currently, STC NITM performs commercial works in the following areas:
- Training and certification of non-destructive inspection specialists in accordance with national and international standards
- Quality control, testing of base metal and welded joints (visual, radiographic, capillary, ultrasonic inspection, mechanical testing, metallography, chemical analysis, corrosion tests)
- Status tracking of corrosion wear of the aboveground section of LIRA pipeline facilities
- Quality control of sealed sources of ionizing radiation
- Certification of welders for equipment and pipelines of nuclear power plants in accordance with Norms and Rules of Nuclear Energy (NRNE) G-7-03-87
In addition to commercial activities at STC NITM the scientific and research works are being conducted on Scientific and Technical program “Development of nuclear-physics methods and technologies for innovative modernization of Kazakhstan’s economy”. The program includes studies on the impact of service loads and operating time on the state of welded joints and base metal of pipelines and equipment of the primary circuit of a nuclear reactor WWR-K. The program includes studies on the impact of service loads and operating time on the state of welded joints and base metal with the purpose of development of new construction control methods and equipment of high-risk industrial facilities. Additionally, works are being held periodically on the control of welded joints, base metal of pipelines and research reactor WWR-K’s tank unit.
With the support of JSC “The Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan” under grant for conducting fundamental scientific studies the work was performed on the theme “Development of risk assessment technology of stress-strain state of pipeline materials of nuclear power plants by the method based on the magnetomechanical anisotropy of metals”.
Laboratory of Physical and Technological Nuclear Power Problems
established in 1998
Research interests – Reactor technology and physics, Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). NPP’s safety problems. Problems of nuclear power development in Kazakhstan.
Main scientific achievements:
- Performed experimental and calculated studies on thorium cycle of nuclear fuel reproduction, on the first in the world fast reactor.
- Performed physical and power launch of reactor WWR-K
- Performed a complex of experimental studies and activities on WWR-K reactor’s safety case and ensurance, under high seismic conditions.
- In the field of space nuclear power methods were developed and experimental studies performed on electrogenerating assembly’s neutron-physical characteristics of thermoemission converter reactor of the space nuclear power plant, as well as explored questions of physics and security of aforementioned NPP.
- In the field of nuclear-activated lasers, together with students, for the first time in nuclear reactor core conducted complex studies of non-nuclear-activated thermal discharge plasma of various gaseous fluids, to obtain lasing in stationary nuclear reactor’s core. For the first time produced electron-beamed controlled CO- and CO2- lasers, excimer XeF-laser in the stationary nuclear reactor’s core.
- Together with students performed a complex of experimental and calculated studies on the possibility of establishing a space nuclear power plant, that will generate laser radiation.
- Studied resonance characteristics of a number of structural materials for the preparation of group constants for the calculation of nuclear reactors
- Conducted a comparative analysis of a number of projects on modern advanced reactors NPP from various countries. Performed studies in the field of development and concept validation of Kazakhstan’s nuclear power development.
Chief of Laboratory Batyrbekov Gadlet Andiyarovich