Research nuclear reactor WWR-K, electrostatic tandem accelerator UKP-2-1, isochronous cyclotron U-150M, critical assembly, electron accelerator EVL-4, heavy ion accelerator DC-60 became the basis for the formation of the school of highly qualified scientists, development of high-end technologies and high technology production (in demand in domestic and world markets), implementation of institutional and post-graduate educational process cycle, including training of highly qualified specialists.
Research nuclear reactor WWR-K
The pool type reactor on the thermal neutrons. The heat-carrier, modeartor and a reflector – demineralized water.
It was put into operation in 1967, it worked on thermal capacity of 10 MWt till 1988 without deviations from the normal modes. From 1988 to 1998 works on safety strengthening in conditions of high seismicity (calculations and substantiations, strengthening of designs, duplication of the systems responsible for the safety, registration of the new documentation) have been spent. By the configuration change of the active zone, the thermal capacity has been reduced to 6 MWt without loss of neutron flows.
On the basis of the reactor, besides the fundamental nuclear-physical researches and the researches of material science and reactor tests, works on the manufacture of medical radioisotopes and gamma sources, neutron alloyage of silicon, neutron-activating analysis are carried out. The possibility of modernization of the active zone for the use of low enriched uranium is studied.
Critical stand – is a physical reactor of low power on thermal neutrons with a light water moderator and a reflector (water or beryllium). It is intended for investigation of neutron-physical characteristics of active zones of WWR -class water-water reactors and active zones elements of other reactors; for the experiments to prove the facility is safety; and also for creation of conditions of loop channels test and various reactor devices.
- the central channel – 65, 96, 140, 380 mm
- peripheral channels – 65, 96, 140 mm
Electrostatic recharging accelerator UKP-2-1
The recharging accelerator UKP-2-1 was developed and manufactured in 1987 in Efremov Scientific Research Institute of electro-physical apparatus. It includes two independent channels of bunch transportation, united by one accelerating potential with the voltage up 1 MV.
Now for the investigation of samples surface properties on the accelerator, the methods PIXE, RBS and nuclear reactions are used.
By means of RBS method the influence of thermal processing of beryllium films (sediment on the iron substrates), on the diffusion properties of the covering, has been investigated.
For the analysis of the beryllium containing foil on accelerator UKP-2-1 the methods of resonant nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions with redistribution of particles on deitron bunch and Rutherford return dispersion were used. The choice of analytical technique is defined by the thickness of the investigated target and presence of additional background-forming factors.
The technique of heavy hydrogen analysis, based on registration of secondary protons – products of nuclear reaction D (d, p) T, has been developed on the accelerator for the analysis of trace concentration of heavy hydrogen in the frozen samples of water received from the control wells of the Karachaganaksky oil and gas deposit. The system of formation of a microbunch has been developed for the expansion of analytical possibilities of the accelerator on the basis of one of the light path transportation channels. The system allows to receive a proton bunch of the size up to ~10 microns x 10 microns at the current ~1 nA on a target. The microprobe in a combination to the PIXE method was used for reception of distribution maps of elements in “hot” particles. Particles were preliminary allocated from the soil samples, which had been selected on Semipalatinsk nuclear area. Within the limits of the program of research of inertial thermonuclear synthesis on accelerator UKP-2-1 together with the institutes ITEP (Moscow) and GSI (Darmstadt) the works on measurement of protons (E=0.5 1.5 MeV) energy losses in the plasma, formed by high current electric discharge in neutral gas have been carried out. The method of accelerating mass spectrometry is now developed for the analysis of the samples isotope composition content on the accelerator on a base of heavy ions path. Within the limits of this problem the new source of heavy ions with the target dispersion by cesium MC-SNICS has been purchased. The source is developed and designed in NEC company (USA).
Isochronous cyclotron U-150M
Designed in Scientific Research Institute for Electro-Physics Instrumentation (Leningrad, Russia), it was commissioned in 1965 in classical mode with fixed energy of particles (p, d, aa) 10 MeV/nucleon. In 1972 it was transferred in isochronous mode with adjustable energy of ions.
Isochronous cyclotron U-150 allows to accelerate protons (6 – 30 MeV), deuterons (12.5 – 25 MeV), alpha -particles (25 – 50 MeV), He3+2 (18.6 – 61.8 MeV) varying final energy. Magnetic field represents a faint spiral and has three sectors. Adjustment of the isochronous field at change of the operating mode can be made with nine pairs of correcting concentric windings. Azimuth non-uniformity is corrected with six pairs of “harmonic” windings located in the central zone of acceleration and in the vicinity of final radius.
Ion source is of slot type with hot cathode and radial inlet into the chamber. Accelerating system consists of two duants of 180o. HF-generator frequency can vary in the range 8.5 to 19 MHz at voltage between the duants up to 160 kV.
There is the possibility to work both with internal and external beams. The internal target assures heat removal up to 15 kW what allows to use beams of high intensity (current for 30 MeV protons comprises 500 muA).
Beam outlet system includes electrostatic baffle with a hyperbolic-profile electrodes with total angular span of 110o, magnetic screen and a system of correcting magnets.
Measurements of the bunch current, spatial and time distributions of bunch intensity are carried out by: visual samplers, joint with industrial television setting; lamellar and scanning samplers; the capacitor gauges, measuring time parameters of ions clots. Sensitivity of system on the bunch current – 1 mkA. Accuracy of measurement of fly time is 0,2 nanoseconds. The accelerator has a branchy system of bunch transportation on the six targets. The system allows to work in achromatic mode at 100 % bunch conducting and dispersive mode.
On the accelerator there is gas-returning setting (He-3), allowing to collect gases from the accelerating cell, to clean of air impurities and to supply the gas dose by dose to the source of ions with periodic completion of losses from the reserve volume.
Irradiations can be carried out in three halls. It is applied in works in the field of nuclear physics, radiation material science, radiation firmness of elements, manufacture of radioisotopes, etc.
Electron accelerator ELV-4
It was constructed on the basis of the induction cascade multiplier. It allows to accelerate the electrons with the energy up to 40 kWt. The accelerator is used for radiation sewing together of polymers and sterilization of the medical equipment.
Virtual tour of the central hall of the accelerator complex DC – 60
Accelerator Complex DC-60
Accelerator DC-60 is comprised of injector-implanter of heavy ions on the base of ECR-source, system of axial beam injection, isochronous cyclotron, system output, wiring and three channels of transporting accelerated ions, channel of transporting low energy ions (ECR-source beams), irradiation devices, scientific and technological equipment.
|Type of ions||Li – Xe|
|A/Z||6 – 12|
|Energy of the accelerated ions||0,4 – 1,75 MeV/nucl.|
|Ions energy scattering||2 %|
|Discrete changes in ion energy||by changing the ionic charge (A/Z ratio)|
|Smooth variation of the ion energy||30% (+/-15%) due to variations in the magnetic field|
The source of multiply charged heavy ions based on electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) is one of the main components of the accelerator. It can work as an injector of heavy ions in the cyclotron for subsequent acceleration and production of the beams of high-energy ions, or in an independent mode, performing the experiments on the beams of low-energy ions, up to 25 keV per charge. The energy of the cyclotron accelerated ions varies between 0.4 and 1.75 MeV/nucleon.
Main areas of scientific research:
- Preparation of nano- and micro-structures based on nuclear track membranes
- Modification of polymers using the beams of heavy ions
- Study of radiation effects in solids, modification of the properties of metals and semiconductors by ion doping
- Study of transfer and radiation capture reactions for astrophysics and fusion applications
- Development of a regulatory-methodological framework for scientific experiments and scientific-technical support of the specialists training using the accelerator DC-60